سیاسی و روابط بین الملل::
The most prominent recent example con- cerns the 'Bolkestein directive' on liberalization of services, which illus- trates the extent to which competition is the norm and how unusual the conditions under which it is challenged.31 The directive received limited attention and, indeed, was set to pass with almost no opposi- tion until it became linked to controversy (especially in France) about 'overseas workers' and a new constitution, as well as questions in the European Parliament.
90(3)) without approval from the European Council or European Parliament to prevent member states from maintaining 'special and exclusive rights' for public undertakings.
The first factor was a change in political tone with the election of a new European Parliament (EP) and the appointment of a new set of Euro- pean Commissioners in 1999.
In the elections that year, parties in the social-democratic bloc won less than 30 per cent of the seats in the EP (Figure 9.1).
European Parliament political grouping relative strength, 1979-2009.
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