علوم اجتماعی و جامعه شناسی::
1980s, these aspirations for less punishment, rather than more, had found a philosophical home in the ideas of the 'Justice Model' (von Hirsch, 1985; Ashworth,
With invocations of Beccaria and Kant, Justice Model theorists argued that punishment should be proportionate to the offence rather than exceed its gravity; it should be certain, finite and limited, rather than uncertain and indefinite; and it should respect the rights and responsibilities of those on whom it was to be inflicted, rather than view them as 'sick' or 'deficient', in need of state-provided care and
In accordance with Justice Model thinking, this should fit the immediate crime they had committed, rather than be determined by any short- comings in their life that came to light as a consequence.
In these ways, then, welfare thinking about punishment came to be largely erased from public and political discourse in these societies, while, at the same time, the carefully calibrated moderation offered by the Justice Model was also jettisoned: the elites that favoured it were, themselves, just as remote from the public at large as the welfare experts had been.
To this end, it is not only the restraints of the liberal welfare sanction that have been removed; those from the brief and tenuous Justice Model interregnum of the 1980s and early 1990s also disappeared.
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