A GRADIENT OF WNT3 IS THE INDUCER The major head inducer of the hypostome organizer is a set of Wnt proteins acting through the canonical p-catenin pathway (Hobmayer et al. 2000; Broun et al. 2005; Lengfeld et al. 2009; also see Bode 2009).
Similarly, transgenic hydra made to globally misexpress the downstream Wnt effector p-catenin form ectopic buds all along the body axis and even on top of newly formed ectopic buds (FIGURE 22.6B; Gee et al. 2010).
In hydra, this polarity was positively regulated by Wnt/p-catenin signaling along the apical-basal axis.
In regenerating planaria, p-catenin is activated (via Wnts) in the posterior-facing blastema, which generates a tail.
As in vertebrate development, an anterior polarity in planarian regeneration is dependent on repression of Wnt signaling, which prevents p-catenin accumulation and allows head formation.
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