How- ever, the sovereigns message he was carrying was in violation of the protocol of the Qing Dynasty on foreign letters, as the name of the Russian tsars ap- peared before the name of Qing emperor (then the Kangxi Emperor), and he was refused delivery of theletter and other gifts.
During the Qing Dynasty, Ili was known as an important point on the Northern Tian Shan (7ci ll) route, which con- nected Hami, Barkol, Kucha, Urumqi, and Ili.
In 1760, the Qing Dynasty appointed a local imperial agent called elutezongguan, then
In 1851, Russia acquired from the Qing Dynasty the rights to engage freely in tax-free trade, and to appoint consuls in Ili and Tacheng.
The Russian Empire and the Qing Dynasty reached an agreement, which stipu- lated that Russia return the Ili basin, and the Qing relinquish the area east of Lake Zaysan in northern Tacheng, pay Russia nine million rubles in gold, and open Xinjiang to allow Russian merchants to trade freely.
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