Cationic amphiphiles are most likely to induce considerable cytotoxic activity by disrupting the bilayer, if not always in a gross manner, perhaps often locally.
However, this process may result in huge cytotoxicity effects.
In the next section, we demonstrate how the phenomenon of membrane repulsion/noninteraction of nanoparticles may help nanoparticle delivery of drugs into the cellular interior with apparently no nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity.
This finding provides essential information for the understanding of nanoparticle-lipid membrane interactions, cytotoxic- ity, preparation of bio molecular templates, and supported lipid membranes on rough and patterned surfaces.
Therefore, off-target cytotoxicity due to nanoparticles becomes inevitable.
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