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As networking technology and services have evolved, one characteristic that has persisted is that much of the traffic requires a service rate that is less than that of a full wavelength.
For example, while many backbone networks support 40 or 100 Gb/s wavelengths, most client demands require rates of 10 Gb/s or lower.
Fur- thermore, the wavelength line rate is expected to increase to 400 Gb/s and higher, whereas it is forecast that, for the foreseeable future, more than 90 % of client de- mands will require rates of 10 Gb/s or below, with almost half of them requiring rates of 2.5 Gb/s or below [Infi12].
Demands at the bit rate of a wavelength are referred to as line rate traffic or wavelength services; demands at a lower bit rate are referred to as subrate traffic.
With Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) framing at the physical layer, the wavelength line rate has evolved in accor- dance with the SONET/SDH rate hierarchy (see Sect. 1.4.1).
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