Indeed, the pharmacologic depletion of immune cells causes impaired tissue healing and regeneration in experimental models of injury [4,5], and dysregulation of immune cell activation results in encapsulation of bio- materials in ﬁbrous tissue in the foreign body response [6-8].
In addition, dysregulated macrophage responses have been linked to the development of chronic skin ulcers, ﬁbrosis, atherosclero- sis, heart failure and impaired healing of various tissues [13-16].
Koh, Dysregulation of monocyte/macrophage phenotype in wounds of diabetic mice, Cytokine 56 (2) (2011) 256-264.
Sections Macrophage Phenotypes During Acute Wound Healing and Macrophage Dysregulation and Chronic Wounds; Figure 2
ASK1-deficient mice also had dysregulated macrophage function; less macrophages were recruited to the wound site and several chemotactic and activating factors (IL-1β, TNF-α) were downregulated (Osaka et al.
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